UK report shows rise in drug-resistant, sexually transmitted diseases Shigella
A report from the UK’s Health Security Agency (HSA) yesterday revealed that sexually transmitted Shigella Infection rates in England are rising again after falling during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Analysis of data from two surveillance databases, the Second Generation Surveillance System (SGSS) and the Gastrointestinal Data Warehouse (GDW), showed that from the third quarter of 2021 to the second quarter of 2021, Shigella infections were significantly more common in SGSS and 2021. GDW rose 189% and 172% in 2022, respectively.
As COVID-19 restrictions eased, the number of travel- and non-travel-related Shigella cases began to climb and are now close to pre-pandemic levels. The increase was most pronounced (127%) in men who have sex with men (MSM), with the highest proportion of diagnoses among putative MSM in London.
The report also found that antimicrobial resistance was consistently high among putative MSM. Shigella flexneri and Shigella isolates, 96% and 92%, respectively, were classified as multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The proportion of XDR continues to increase Sonne has been driven by a recovery Sonne Clade 5 outbreak strains.
In a recently published study The Lancet Infectious Disease, Of the 72 confirmed cases, HSA investigators report Shigella Cases detected in the UK between 1 September 2021 and 9 February 2022 belonged to clade 5 and all belonged to the genotype MDR or XDR.
Although shigellosis is often associated with exposure to contaminated food and water, it can be spread through oral and anal sex and is considered a sexually transmitted disease.A February report by the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) noted that the increase in XDR Sonne Infected in the UK and elsewhere in Europe, and warned that the risk of transmission among MSM networks engaged in high-risk sex, such as oral sex, could be high in the coming months.
September 28 UK High Speed Rail Report
July 6 The Lancet Infectious Diseases study
February 23 ECDC Rapid Risk Assessment
Randomized trial finds no effect of antibiotic prescription feedback
General practice-level feedback had no impact on antibiotic prescribing, researchers found today in a randomized trial in primary care practice in Scotland. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
For the Feedback on Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care (FAPCC) trial, 340 Scottish GPs were randomly assigned to receive four quarterly feedback on antibiotic prescribing (intervention group) or not (control group) from Q2 to Q1 2016 ) in the fourth quarter of 2017. Reports include different clinical topics, benchmarks for state and health board prescription rates, behavioral information with improved techniques, and educational resources. The primary outcome was the overall antibiotic prescription rate.
Baseline total antibiotic prescription rates for the 181 intervention and 159 control hospitals were 1.93 and 1.98 prescriptions per 1,000 patients per day, respectively. The overall antibiotic prescription rate declined in both groups prior to the study and continued to trend downward during the study period, dropping to 1.83 (intervention) and 1.90 (intervention) per 1,000 patients per day at the primary analysis time point (one year later). Control) Prescription last feedback report published).
There was no evidence of an intervention effect (adjusted rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94 to 1.02). There was also no evidence of an effect on re-prescribing or hospital admission outcomes.
The authors of the study hypothesized that feedback had no effect on prescribing, as it made little addition to existing antibiotic stewardship interventions applied over the past 14 years and resulted in a stable and substantial reduction in antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Scotland. They suggest that focusing future feedback interventions on top prescribers may have a better return on investment, but say further research is needed.
“This well-designed, authentic, practice-level feedback on antibiotic prescribing has minimal additional impact in the context of reducing antibiotic prescribing and establishing national stewardship plans,” they wrote. “Designing and implementing effective feedback interventions remains a critical issue. Priorities to support the challenging goal of reducing antibiotic prescribing.”
September 29 J Antibacterial Chemotherapy study
Source of recent Marburg outbreak in Ghana unknown
Earlier this month, Ghana declared the end of its first Marburg virus outbreak, which resulted in three cases and two deaths, and yesterday the World Health Organization (WHO) fleshed out details of its investigation, including potential links to other outbreaks in Africa.
So far, the source of the outbreak, which was declared over on September 16, is unclear, the WHO said. The first patient was a 26-year-old man who became ill on June 22, was hospitalized on June 26, and died the next day.
A 14-month-old child was admitted to hospital on July 17 and died on the third day of admission. The third illness involved a 24-year-old woman who was admitted to a government-run isolation centre on 26 July. The report did not point to any link between the three patients, although earlier reports said they were the index’s child and wife patients.
Outbreak responders identified and monitored 198 contacts.
The WHO said genetic sequences from samples from Ghana indicated they were related to sequences from the first Marburg outbreak in Guinea in 2021. It also added that the sequences from Ghana were combined with bats from Sierra Leone and samples from the 2004-2005 Angola outbreak.
September 28 World Health Organization Statement on Marlborough, Ghana
CIDRAP News September 16 scanning
July 27 CIDRAP News scanning
Bird flu hits more poultry in 4 states
According to the United States Department of Agriculture (the latest update from the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)), four additional states have reported outbreaks of HPAI in poultry flocks.
Two of those states reported outbreaks on commercial turkey farms. The virus was reported in North Dakota on a farm in Ransom County that houses 69,100 birds. Utah reported two outbreaks on turkey farms in Sampitt County, which have a total of 163,900 turkeys.
Meanwhile, Minnesota and Oregon reported more outbreaks of backyard birds. The Oregon Department of Agriculture said there have been two outbreaks of backyard birds in Tillamook County, the first from the area.
To date, the outbreak has cost 46.6 million birds in 40 states.
In a related development, the USDA this week reported more than 180 cases of the H5N1 avian flu strain in wild birds, bringing the total to 2,650 since mid-January. Most of the new findings came from hunter-caught birds in Oklahoma, Illinois and Indiana, as well as live bird monitoring in New York.
USDA APHIS Poultry Avian Influenza renew
September 28 Oregon Department of Agriculture statement
USDA APHIS Avian Influenza in Wild Birds renew